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Yes, I understand that you are looking for answers. But someone came up with this, and thought they could use this to sway ignorant Catholics to leave the Church. I detest the use of lies and distortions to lead someone to what someone believes is the real church. I showed him in some of the readings of the Early Church Fathers that we taught these things long before that, all the way back into the first century sometimes.

Also, some books are joined.


Baruch is considered part of Jeremiah and not a seperate book. If anyone else has some information here, or, Notworthy, if you have proof from the Fathers than I cannot find, would you let me know? With respect I think you are going off thread here. I think you should start a new thread with these questions.

Books of the bible different in Hippo from what was declared in Trent? Help please Apologetics. Sacred Scripture.

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Superstar July 8, , pm 1. Is this claim accurate? Superstar July 8, , pm 3. NotWorthy July 9, , am 4. Thank you and God Bless! I just googled Council of Hippo.

There are plenty of listings. Seek and ye shall find. The Greek or Melchite Patriarch , given at right. The Latin Patriarch. In , , or thereabouts, during the Crusades , as at Constantinople , a Latin Church was created for Alexandria. In recent history, however, the titular Latin Patriarch lived in Rome, ruling through an Apostolic Vicar in Alexandria. The See fell vacant in and finally was simply abolished in The Coptic Catholic Patriarch.

Despite the existence of a Latin Patriarch of Alexandria, and perhaps because he resided in Rome, in the Catholic Church organized a Coptic Counter-Church the Coptic Catholic Church , which is like the Coptic Church in every way except that it accepts Roman doctrine and authority. At first this Church was headed by an "Apostolic Vicar," who, for all I know, may originally have been the representative of the Latin Patriarch.

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In the Vicar was raised to the status of a Patriarch. Counter-Churches have been created by Rome for many Eastern Churches. They sometimes differ in curious details from the original Church, for instance that the Coptic Counter-Church uses the Gregorian Calendar rather than the Julian Calendar still used by the Copts. Orthodox Melkite , as with the Melkite Church at Alexandria.

This is the line often called "Greek Orthodox" as it is in conformity with the theology of the Patriarch of Constantinople, although, like many such Orthodox Churches, autocephalous i. The Church today is self-characterized as the " Antiochian Orthodox " Church. The Patriarch actually resides in Damascus. However, this was not created by the Catholic Church but originated in a disputed election in In the losing candidate was recognized by the Pope as the Patriarch Cyril VI, who then entered into conformity with Roman doctrine and authority.

As a result, we may say that in these Ecumenical Councils God has visited His people in a special manner. In them the Holy Spirit has shown forth His power in an extraordinary fashion. Christ, the divine Head of the Church, has willed to gather together His bishops, in union with His vicar on earth and under the direction of the Holy Spirit, in order to guide the universal Church.

At the close, the bishops can repeat with the Apostles at Jerusalem: "For the Holy Spirit and we have decided The difference between a General Council, then, and a local council, is not to be sought primarily in the legal requirements upon which they are based. The current laws of the Church only formulate, in their own way, the deeper theological truth.

The true meaning of a General Council arises from the intimate nature of the Church established by Christ.

In other words, it is not fundamentally a question of how many bishops must attend, or from what parts of the world they must actually come, or by what papal decree they are approved. These are important questions, of course. But it is the supernatural life of the Church which gives meaning to them all. A General Council is a part of the "mystery" of the Church. Like all the varied elements within the Church, it also shares in the supernatural quality of that life. It is far more than a gathering together of bishops in a certain place; it is far more than solemnity and color. It is, above all this, a , ever dwelling within this Church of Christ.

As a glance at the list of General Councils will indicate, they have been celebrated in many different places, under many and diverse circumstances. There has been great variety in the external ceremony and color. The number of bishops who attended has varied greatly, ranging from as few as one hundred to as many as one thousand bishops and prelates. Some Councils have continued for years; others have been completed in a matter of days. Some were great spectacles before the world, causing comment on all sides; others were celebrated in such fashion that large parts of the Catholic world scarcely knew that they were going on.

The single thread that joins them together, however, is this special working of the Holy Spirit which comes into play at an Ecumenical Council. There must, of course, be certain laws concerning such a Council. It is not up to every individual to decide whether a particular Council is or is not an Ecumenical Council.

When the Holy Father, for example, gives to the Church a solemn definition like the definition of the Assumption in , we can also see beneath this the special working of the Holy Spirit The Pope, however, must still make clear to the Church that he to speak infallibly; he must let the members know that this is to be a solemn definition. So also with a General Council: there must be some way of knowing that it a General Council. The Church must make clear to its members that this is to be an Ecumenical, and not a local, Council, so that they may perceive in it this special manifestation of the Holy Spirit.

Thoughts on the Church’s Old Testament Canon

Thus we have the legal requirements established for setting up a General Council. To be truthful, some of these technical requirements seem to have varied through the centuries. The Church can establish the laws which seem most fitting for the circumstances in which she finds herself. The history of some of these twenty Councils is shrouded in a good amount of obscurity. Special questions may be raised concerning precisely who first called the Council together, who attended it, and what its precise relationship to the Bishop of Rome might have been.

But in the life of the Church, the matter shines forth with much more clarity. The Church of Christ is a living thing, and as such it grasps in a living fashion the activity of the Holy Spirit within it. Thus the Church has recognized certain Councils as ecumenical. The decrees of these gatherings have played a special role in the life of Christ's members. If we look over the general history of them all, we are able to draw certain conclusions about what makes a General Council. It is from a consideration of all these various elements that we come to our present-day understanding of such a Council.

If we were to define it, our definition would run something like this: "A General Council is a legitimate gathering of the bishops of the entire world, called for the purpose of discussing and settling the doctrinal and disciplinary questions of the universal Church. It is first of all a "legitimate" gathering. As Christ established His Church, there are to be always and everywhere bishops who rule their dioceses in the same way in which the Pope rules the universal Church.

These bishops are not simply the Pope's "representatives" in the diocese. They rule in the place of Christ, by divine right. They are, therefore, Christ's "local vicars," as it were. While their power to rule comes , however, it is also true that they receive it the Pope.